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Journal/NDM44 2009 eng
New Data on Minerals. Volume 44. 2009, 112 pages, 26 photos, 62 drawings and schemes.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Editorial Board
- 3 Publishing group
- 4 Сontent
This issue contains description of rare pyrope-majorite garnet found in kersantite and spessartite dykes of Chetlas Kamen’,
Central Timan, Te-bearing fahlores and similar phases from various deposits and phases with composition similar to fahlores,
enargite, and luzonite from deposits of Bulgaria; problems concerning recalculation of chemical analyses of these minerals
are discussed. Carbonaceous matter and its mineral assemblages in pegmatites of various formations, mineralogical features
of multimetal deposits of Russia, Central Asia, and Kazakhstan are reported; role of sorbent minerals for concentration of
metals in the supergene zone of these deposits are discussed. Results of experimental study of species of Au, Ag, and
Pt-Pd-Sn intermetallic compounds at crystallization of Cu-Fe sulfide melt are given.
Part “Mineralogical Museums and Collections” introduces a collection of mosaic arts from funds of Fersman Mineralogical Museum. In “Mineralogical Notes”, a problem of horizontal isomorphic substitutions of chemical elements is discussed. Part “Discussion” contains paper, which continues essay on fundamental and genetic mineralogy published in previous issue and uses the eudialyte group minerals to illustrate a problem of typomorphic features of minerals.
This issue is of interest to mineralogists, geochemists, geologists, researchers of Natural History museums, collectors and amateurs of stone.
Editor in Chief: - M.I. Novgorodova - Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, Professor
Executive Editor: - E.A. Borisova - Ph.D.of Geology and Mineralogy
Members of Editorial Board:
E.I. Semenov - Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy
S.N. Nenasheva - Ph.D.of Geology and Mineralogy
E.N. Matvienko - Ph.D.of Geology and Mineralogy
M.B. Chistyakova - Ph.D.of Geology and Mineralogy
M.E. Generalov - Ph.D.of Geology and Mineralogy
Photo - M.B. Leybov
Leader of Publishing group - M.B. Leybov
Managing Editor - L.A. Cheshko
Art Director - N.O. Parlashkevich
Editor - A.L. Cheshko
Design and Layout - I.A. Glazov
Translators – M.S. Alferova, I.A. Anisimov, I.A. Baksheev, Mark Fed’kun, V.V. Gerasimovskii, M. Povarennykh
Editors (English Style) - Patricia Gray, Frank C. Hawthorne, Peter Modreski
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New Minerals and Their Varieties, New Finds of Rare Minerals, Mineral Paragenesis
In kersantite and spessartite dikes of Chetlas Kamen’ among accessory garnets, that are rather rare in lamprophyres, there was discovered few and for the first time high-majorite pyrope garnet with majorite minal Mg3Fe2[SiO4]3 (26–42%), similar to majorite garnet originating from a meteorite. Majorite discovered in Coorara meteorite (Mason et al., 1968; Smith, Mason, 1970) is very rare in the terrestrial rocks. It is shown, that highmajorite pyrope to variable degree is associated with diamond. On the one hand, it occurs as inclusions in diamond crystals, on the other hand, in rocks, where such garnet is found, microcrystalline diamond is established . Pyropemajorite garnet in lamprophyres testifies to superdeep origin of lamprophyre magma. читать далее...
Comparative investigation of carbonaceous matters from pegmatites of different formations has been performed. These formations are as follows: high alkaline (Khibina and Lovozero massifs, Kola Peninsula), rare metal granitic (Viitaniemi, Finland), granitic of mica type (Northern Karelia), and alkaline granite amazonitic (Western Keyvy, Kola Peninsula). The existence of steady genetic relation between reduced forms of carbon and several characteristic incoherent rare “bitumenphilic” elements (U, Th, REE, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, W, Sn) and titanium has been shown as well. Possible mechanisms of the formation and the transformation of carbonaceous matters in pegmatites of different genetic types, their structure and role in processes of mineral genesis are discussed. читать далее...
Results of investigation of samples from the Chelopech deposit are compared with literature data. Minerals are discovered which have very similar optical features and elemental composition to fahlore, enargite and luzonite. However, their formulae are not electroneutral by calculation per 29 atoms in the unit cell or per the fahlore formula. They become electroneutral only by recalculation per larger numbers of atoms in the unit cell (32, 33 and 34 atoms). It is assumed that these are new mineral species similar in optical properties and chemical composition to fahlore, enargite and luzonite. They have following idealized formulae: Cu+11Ме2+3(Te4+,ПМе3+)4S16, Cu+11Ме2+2Ме3+ПМе3+4S15, Cu+10Me2+3(Te4+,ПMe3+)4S16, Cu+8Cu2+2Fe2+3As4S15, Cu+8Cu2+3Fe2+2As4S15, Cu+2Cu2+3As2S7 (Me is the metals, ПMe is the semimetals). Goldfieldite and Te-tetrahedrite containing more than 24 wt.% tellurium are commonly heterogenous. They contain very small segregations of native tellurium. Moreover, tellurium may enter the sulfur position in their structure. читать далее...
The possibility of new mineral species close in optical and chemical features to fahlores is shown in the article. Their idealized formulae, calculated with 32 and 33 atoms in a unit cell, are as follows: Cu+11Ме2+1.00Ме3+1.00ПМе4.00S15 and Cu+10Ме2+3.00ПМе4.00S16. It is assumed that they are germanium-free analogues of complex sulfides of germanium (germanite, renierite, briartite). Moreover, the character of tellurium in Te-bearing fahlores from volcanogenic and hydrothermal quartz-sulfide vein deposits of gold–sulfide formation is considered. It is shown that tellurium may enter both cation (Te4+) and anion positions (Te2-) in goldfieldite and Te-bearing tetrahedrite. Goldfieldites containing more than 24 wt.% tellurium are heterogenous as a rule, and contain native tellurium as a very fine admixture. Te-bearing fahlores with a high content of silver (7–13 wt.%) may contain admixtures of fine-grained kervelleite Ag4TeS. читать далее...
Chernikov A.A., Dubinchuk V.T., Ozhogin D.O., Chistyakova N.I. Mineralogical Features of Certain Multimetal Deposits of Russia, Central Asia, Kazakhstan and Role of Mineral Sorbents in the Concentration of Metals in the Zone of Hypergenesis, p. 45 - 54
There is evidence of genetic proximity by the similarity in distribution of the mineral assemblages in the Onega deposits, Karelia and exogenous infiltration uranium deposits of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. There are many common features of mineralization at the Onega deposits and mineralization of the North Urals and Kodaro-Udokan trough, NW Transbaikalia, where prospects of discovering large precious metal deposits are rather great. The data support the contention (Chernikov, 1977, 2001; Chernikov et al., 2000, 2005, 2007) about the possibility of increasing precious metal reserves associated with uranium-vanadium Onega-type deposits. The role of the mineral sorbents in the concentration of precious and other metals in the supergene zone of deposits in the investigated districts is reviewed. читать далее...
Crystal Chemistry, Minerals as Prototypes of New Materials, Physical and Chemical Properties of Minerals
Species of trace Au and Ag (1 wt.%) in crystallized products of the central part melts of the Cu-Fe-S system have been studied. It has been established that gold of high fineness (80–82 wt.%) and silver (98–99 wt.%) associated with cubic (pc) haycockite Cu4Fe5S8 solid solution, bornite Cu5FeS4 and pyrrhotite Fe1–xS crystallize from melts containing 47 at.% S, Cu/Fe = 0.93–0.63. Gold of high fineness (84–96 wt.%) and sulfides of the Me2S type, where Me is up to, at.%: 48 Ag, 23 Au, 18 Cu, 2 Fe, associated with tetragonal chalcopyrite solid solution Cu1–хFe1+хS2, cubanite CuFe2S3, talnakhite Cu9Fe8S16, pyrite FS2, bornite, and pyrrhotite crystallize from melts of the following composition: 50 at.% S, Cu/Fe = 1–0.43 and 47 at.% S, Cu/Fe = 1.12. It is concluded that the Ag-Au sulfides are formed at temperature higher than 600°C and are resulted from a presence of free sulfur after crystallization of high-temperature cubic (fcc) chalcopyrite solid solution (iss). The relations of the Au-Ag phases and Cu-Fe sulfides in the products of joint crystallization from melts are determined by accumulation of Au-Ag phases during crystallization of iss and fine scattering of Ag as Ag-bearing sulfides are formed. читать далее...
To understand the formation conditions of Pt-Pd-Fe-Sn minerals in the Noril’sk magmatic Cu-Fe ore they were synthesized by cooling of Fe-Sn-S and Cu-Fe-S melts containing admixtures of Pt, Pd, and Sn (1–2 wt.%) from 1200°C to room temperature. Crystallization of the Fe-Sn-S melts with Fe/Sn 3/1, 1/1 и 1/3 and 50 at.% S leads to the formation of PtSn and PtSn2, which involve the whole Pt (1 wt.%) containing in the melts. The relationship between Pt-Pd phases (by 1 wt.%) and crystallized products of the Cu-Fe-S melts with 50 at.% S and Cu/Fe 1.22–0.25, and 45 at.% S and Cu/Fe 1.44–0.38 has been determined. Isoferroplatinum, Pt3Fe, has been synthesized in association with cubanite CuFe2S3 + pyrrhotite Fe1–хS, mooihoekite Cu9Fe9S16 + bornite Cu5FeS4, haycockite Cu4Fe5S8 + bornite + pyrrhotite, and bornite + pyrrhotite. Pd analogue of isoferroplatinum, Pd3Fe, has been synthesized in association with cubanite + pyrrhotite. Rustenburgite, Pt3Sn, atokite, Pd3Sn, Pd-bearing rustenburgite, (Pt,Pd)3Sn, Fe-bearing niggliite Pt(Sn,Fe), and Sn-bearing solid solutions of the hongshite series (Pt,Pd)(Fe,Cu,Sn) have been synthesized in the crystallization field of isoferroplatinum (50 at.% S, Cu/Fe = 0.25 and 45 at.% S, 1.44 > Cu/Fe ≥ 0.69). Thus, the presence of Sn in the field of stability of Pt-Pd-Fe intermetallic compounds determines the crystallization of their Pt-Pd-Sn analogues. The deficiency of Sn to form Pt-Pd-Sn phases is balanced by Fe and Pt-Pd-Sn-Fe phases crystallize simultaneously. The habit of synthesized phases and phase relationships in the crystallized products studied here are consistent with available published data for relevant natural assemblages. читать далее...
Mineralogical Museums and Collections
The Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS possesses a collection of mosaics of different styles dated from the 18th to the 20th century. A description of the exhibits and information on the history of the creation and the artists of some of them is provided. читать далее...
Horizontal isomorphic substitutions of chemical elements is described. читать далее...
The present paper is a sequel to the previously published (Borutzky, 2008) essay on the minerals of variable composition with variable structure (MVCVS) with an example of eudialyte-eucolites. The characteristic feature of this typical mineral from alkaline complexes is the unique ability to include up to one third of The Mendeleev’s Periodic Table of the chemical elements in its composition. This is entailed by a partial realignment of the crystal structure in response to changing chemistry and evolution of the mineral-forming environment with time. According to the author, the detailed typomorphous analysis of eudialyte-eucolites is more informative and useful in terms of genetic mineralogy rather than formal determination of dozens of independent mineral species. читать далее...