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Journal/NDM40 2005 eng

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New Data on Minerals, vol.40, 2005

New Data on Minerals. Moscow.: Ocean Pictures, 2005. volume 40, 168 pages, 15 color and 99 b/w drawings, schemes, photos.

Summary

The volume 40 includes articles on new mineral species, among which chukhrovite(Nd), tsepiniteSr, senkevichite, and kyrgyzstanite are described. The new data on rare minerals calcurmolite and turanite, easily oxidizable chalcopyrite from black smokers of the Rainbow hydrothermal field (MidAtlantic Ridge), vanadium hematite associated with minerals of precious metals, copper, zinc, and iron is given; also there is data on fahlores from the Kvartsitovye Gorki deposit and the nickelinebreithauptite mineral series from the Norilsk ore field. Features of bismuth mineralization of the Djimidon deposit (North Osetia) and raremetal mineralization connected with bituminous matters from pegmatites of the Khibiny and Lovozero massifs are revealed. The results of study of metacolloidal gold and delhayelite crystals are published.
In the «Mineralogical Museums and collections» part, the minerals named in honour of collaborators of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, specimens of platinum of the Ugolnyi stream (Norilsk) from the Museum collection are described; interesting historical data on the items of Decorative and Precious Stones collection (PDK) is given. «Mineralogical Notes» part includes the mineralogical summary of main mineral types of ores of Europe and the article devoted to mineral drawings of Victor Slyotov and Vladimir Makarenko. In new «Discussions» part, the polemics on the theme «What are the mineral and mineral species» is opened. The review of new books is published.
The volume is of interest for mineralogists, geochemists, geologists, and also collaborators of naturalhistorical museums, collectors and amateur of minerals.

Editorial Board
  • Editor in Chief Margarita I .Novgorodova, Doctor in Science, Professor
  • Editor in Chief of the volume: Elena A.Borisova, Ph.D
  • Moisei D. Dorfman, Doctor in Science
  • Svetlana N. Nenasheva, Ph.D
  • Marianna B. Chistyakova, Ph.D
  • Elena N. Matvienko, Ph.D
  • Мichael Е. Generalov, Ph.D
  • N.A.Sokolova Secretary
  • Translator: Yiulia Belovistkaya
Publishing group
  • Photo: Michael B. Leybov, Michael E. Generalov
  • Leader of publishing group Michael B. Leibov
  • Executive Editor Ludmila А. Cheshko
  • Art Director Nikolay О. Parlashkevich
  • Editor Ekaterina V. Yakunina
  • Design (idea) Dmitrii Ershov
  • Layout Elena Yurlova

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN PUBLICATION DATA
Authorized for printing by the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the Russian Academy of Science
© Text, photo, drawings, Fersman Mineralogical Museum Russian Academy of Science, 2005
© Design, Ocean Pictures, 2005
Authorized for printing by the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Science
Text, photos, drawings, Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Science, 2007
Design AlLTUM Ltd, 2007
Published by Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS
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email: mineral@fmm.ru; www.fmm.ru
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Printed in Russia

Сontent

New Minerals and Their Varieties, New Finds of Rare Minerals, Mineral Paragenesis

Pdf icon.pngPautov L.A., Bekenova G.K., Karpenko V.Yu., Agakhanov A.A. Chukhrovite(Nd), Ca3(Nd,Y)Al2(SO4)F13·12H2O, a New Mineral, p. 5 - 10

In specimens from the oxidized zone of the KaraOba deposit (Central Kazakhstan), a new neodymiumdominant analogue of chukhrovite(Y) and chukhrovite(Ce) has been found; it has been named chukhrovite(Nd). The new mineral occurs in the form of isometric grains and small crystals represented by a combination of {100} and {111} faces, with sizes ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 mm; it forms zones within the larger crystals of chukhrovite(Y) also. Chukhrovite(Nd) is associated with quartz, fluorite, halloysite, chukhrovite(Y), anglesite, gearksutite, creedite, and the jarosite group minerals. The mineral is colourless, rarely white. Streak is white. Hardness is 3.54 on Mohs' scale. Density (meas.) is 2.42(3) g/cm3, density (calc.) is 2.42 g/cm3. The mineral is transparent, and in thin sections it has anomalous grey interference colours, n=1.443(2) (589 nm). Chemical composition (electron microprobe instrument, wt %) is following: CaO – 20.03; Y2O3 – 1.94, La2O3 – 2.32; Ce2O3 – 1.37; Pr2O3 – 1.37; Nd2O3 – 6.26; Sm2O3 – 1.90; Gd2O3 – 1.12; Dy2O3– 0.44; Ho2O3– 0.10; Al2O3– 12.09; SO3– 9.38; F – 28.93; H2O (by difference) – 24.93, less O=F 12.18, total 100.00 wt%.Empirical formula is Ca3.06(Nd0.32Y0.15La0.12Sm0.09Ce0.07Pr0.07Gd0.05Dy0.02Ho0.01)0.90 Al2.03S1.01O3.96F13.06·11.87H2O. Ideal formula is Ca3(Nd,Y)Al2(SO4)F13·12H2O. Cubic, space group Fd3, a=16.759(3) Å, V=4707.0(1) Å3, Z=8. Strong lines of Xray pouder pattern are following (dI(hkl)): 9.710(111); 5.927(220); 3.22-8(511); 2.555-7(533); 2.240-5(642); 2.180-6(731); 1.827-5(842). The IR spectrum is as follows: 3548, 3423, 1630, 1090, 586, 465 cm-1. The type specimen of the new mineral is at the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, RAS (Moscow). читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngPekov I.V., Chukanov N.V., Zadov A.E., Rozenberg K.A., Rastsvetaeva R.K. Tsepinite-Sr, (Sr,Ba,K)(Ti,Nb)2(Si4O12)(OH,O)2·3H2O, a New Mineral of the Labuntsovite Group, p. 11 - 16

TsepiniteSr is a new mineral of the labuntsovite group (the vuoriyarvite subgroup); it is an analogue of tsepinite-Na, tsepiniteK, and tsepinite-Ca, with predominance of Sr among the extraframework cations. Tsepinite-Sr has been found in hydrothermal paragenesis in cavities of nepheline-syenite pegmatite at the Mt. Eveslogchorr in the Khibiny massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It is associated with microcline, albite, natrolite, analcime, aegirine, eudialyte, leifite, vuoriyarviteK, tsepiniteCa, kuzmenkoite-Zn, paratsepinite-Ba, takanelite, etc. The mineral forms coarseprismatic crystals up to 0.2 x 0.4 x 2 mm in size and crusts up to 4 x 5 mm. It is translucent, colourless or white; the streak is white, and the lustre is vitreous. The mineral is brittle, without cleavage; the fracture is uneven. The Mohs' hardness is ~5. The measured density is 2.67(2), and the calculated density is 2.63 g/cm3 . The mineral is optically biaxial, positive; Np=1.649(2), Nm=1.651(2), Ng=1.770(4); 2Vmeas=20(5)°, 2Vcalc=16°. Chemical composition is as follows (the electron microprobe data, H2O by TGA, wt %): Na2O 0.61, K2O 1.30, CaO 0.92, SrO 5.12, BaO 4.27, MgO 0.01, MnO 0.05, FeO 0.08, ZnO 0.26, Al2O3 0.18, SiO2 41.89, TiO2 18.49, Nb2O5 16.07, H2O 11.14, total 100.39. The empirical formula calculated on (Si,Al)4O12(O,OH)2 is as follows: (Sr0.28Ba0.16K0.16Na0.11Ca0.09Zn0.02) 0.82 (Ti1.32Nb0.69Fe0.01)2.02(Si3.98Al0.02)4O12[(OH)1.89O0.11]2·2.59H2O. The ideal formula is (Sr,Ba,K)(Ti,Nb)2 (Si4O12)(OH,O)2·3H2O (Z=4). The mineral is monoclinic; space group Cm. The unit cell parameters (from the single crystal data) are as follows: a=14.490(3), b=14.23(1), c=7.881(3) Å, β=117.28(2)° , V=1444(1) Å 3. The strongest lines on the X-ray powder pattern are as follows (d,Å -I (hkl)): 7.10-90 (020, 001); 6.45-50 (200, 20-1); 5.01-40 (021); 3.230-100 (42-1, 400, 40-2); 3.135-80 (022, 041, 24-1); 2.510-80 (44-1, 401, 40-3, 042), 1.728-50 (461, 46-3, 081, 442, 44-4), 1.570-45 (84-1, 820, 84-3, 190, 82-4). The IR spectrum is given. The type specimen is deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS, Moscow. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngAgakhanov A.А., Pautov L.A., Uvarova Y.A., Sokolova E.V., Hawthorne Frank, Karpenko V.Yu. Senkevichite, CsKNaCa2TiO[Si7O18(OH)], a New Mineral, p. 17 - 22

Senkevichite is a new cesium mineral, which has been found in the alkaline massif of Darai-Piyoz (Tajikistan). The mineral forms intergrowths of elongated boardlike grains up to 1 mm in light in quartzpectolite aggregates from blocks consisting mainly of granulated massive quartz. When transparent, the mineral is colourless, otherwise, white. The fracture is brittle. The Mohs hardness is 5.56. Measured density is 3.12 g/cm3 . The mineral is biaxial, optically positive; αp=1.616(2), βm=1.645(2), γg=1.683(2). Triclinic, space group P1; a=10.4191(4) Å, b=12.2408(5) Å, c=7.0569(3) Å, V=887.8(1) Å 3, Z=2. Chemical composition is as follows (electron microprobe analysis; H2O is calculated, wt %): SiO2 – 50.48, TiO2 – 8.94, Nb2O5 – 0.64, FeO – 0.50, MnO – 2.59, CaO – 11.09, Na2O – 3.73, K2O – 6.13, Cs2O – 15.28, H2O (calc) – 1.09, total – 100.47. Empirical formula of the mineral is Cs0.90K1.08Na1.00(Ca1.65Mn0.30Fe0.06)2.01(Ti0.93Nb0.04)0.97O0.97[Si7O18(OH)]. Ideal formula is CsKNaCa2TiO[Si7O18(OH)]. Strong lines on Xray powder diagram are following (d, I): 4.08 (13), 3.33 (11), 3.25(25), 3.14 (21), 3.06 (100), 2.959 (20), 2.038 (17). Crystal structure is solved with R=4.5%. The type specimen of the new mineral is kept in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS (Moscow, Russia). читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngAgakhanov A.A., Karpenko V.Yu., Pautov L.A., Bekenova G.K., Uvarova Y.A., Sokolova E.V., Hawthorne Frank Kyrgyzstanite, ZnAl4(SO4)(OH)12·3H2O, a New Mineral from the KaraTangi Deposit, Kirgizia, p. 23 - 28

Kyrgyzstanite is a new hydrous sulphate of aluminium and zinc with the formula ZnAl4(SO4)(OH)12·3H2O (monoclinic, sp. group P21/n, a=10.246(9) Å, b=8.873(4) Å, c=17.22(1) Å, β=96.41(7)°, V=1556(3) Å3, Z=4), which has been found in vanadium-bearing slates of the KaraTangi deposit (Batken region, Kirgizia) in assemblage with quartz, calcite, alumohydrocalcite, nickelalumite, and allophane. The mineral forms crusts of radiating fibrous aggregates of split crystals. The dominant forms as follows: {001}, {110}, {010}, and {310}. Colour is light blue to greenish. The mineral is transparent; lustre is vitreous. The Mohs' hardness is 2–2.5; VHN=70 kg/mm2 . Cleavage is perfect on (001). Density is 2.25(1) (meas), 2.242 g/cm3 (calc). Kyrgyzstanite is optically negative, biaxial; np=1.517(1), nm=1.525(1), ng=1.527(1), 2Vcalc=53°. Dispersion is strong, r<v . Orientation is c˄Np=6°. Strong lines on X-ray powder diagram are as follows (d, I): 8.60(100), 7.93(70), 4.83(80), 4.27(100), 2.516(70), 2.292(80), 1.998(95), 1.896(65), 1.720(65). Chemical composition (electron microprobe analysis, wt %, average on 6 measurements) is as follows: ZnO 10.02 , NiO 4.13, CuO 0.58, FeO 0.32, V2O5 0.08, Al2O3 38.45, SiO2 0.33, SO3 15.00, H2O 31.10 (wet chemistry), total 99.01. The empirical formula is (Zn0.65Ni0.29 Cu0.04Fe0.02)0.99 Al4.00Si0.03(SO4)0.99 (OH)12.12·2.81H2O. Kyrgyzstanite is a structural analogue of nickelalumite. Crystal structure of the latter was solved on a single crystal of zincrich variety from the same geological formation; it represents brucitelike octahedral layers along (001) (octahedra Al and М). In the interlayer space the single (SO4) tetrahedra and H2O molecules are localized. The IR spectrum is given. Mineral genesis is hydrothermal. Kyrgyzstanite was named in honour of Kirgizia (the Republic of Kyrgyzstan), where it was first discovered. Type material has been deposited in the collection of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Moscow. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngSidorenko G.A., Chistyakova N.I., Chukanov N.V., Naumova I.S., Rassulov V.A. Calcurmolite: New Data on Chemical Composition and Constitution of the Mineral, p. 29 - 36

The revised crystallochemical formula of calcurmolite, (Ca,Na)2(UO2)3Mo2(O,OH)11·nH2O, is given on the basis of electron microprobe analyses of the samples from Kazakhstan (KyzylSai) and Armenia (Kadjaran). Parameters of the monoclinic unit cell: a=16.30 0.03 Å, b=25.49 0.05 Å, c=19.50 0.06 Å, β=90°07’, are estimated by X-ray diffraction method. The IR spectra and spectra of laser luminescence of two mentioned findings of the mineral have been obtained for the first time; they show the identity, stability, and diagnostic value of both methods. Micro-textural and structural peculiarities of calcurmolite prevent from the research of a crystal structure of the mineral. Calcurmolite was formed as a pseudomorph after uranophane. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngKarpenko V.Yu., Agakhanov A.A., Pautov L.A., Sokolova E.V., Hawthorne Frank, Bekenova G.K. Turanite from Tyuya-Muyun, Kirgizia: New Data on Mineral, p. 37 - 43

The new data has been obtained for turanite described in the beginning of the last century at the Tyuya-Muyun deposit; there are the results of study of the holotype specimen from the Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS (Moscow) and new field collections. Turanite forms spherulite aggregates in assemblage with tangeite, malachite, barite, quartz, calcite; also turanite forms the cavernous aggregations with tangeite. Turanite is olivegreen, transparent, often it is represented by polysynthetic twins; the mineral is brittle. The Mohs hardness is 4.5-5, VHN=436 (354-570 kg/mm2). The cleavage is perfect on (011). Density (calc)=4.452 g/cm3 . The unit cell parameters calculated by the X-ray powder pattern are as follows: a=5.377(6) Å, b=6.276(7) Å, c=6.833(7) Å, α=86.28(2), β=91.71(3), γ=92.35(2)°, V=229.8(1) Å3. Chemical composition is as follows (the holotype specimene/new collections; wt %): CuO 62.94/64.81, V2O5 28.90/29.86, H2O 5.85 (calculation by the crystal structural data)/5.81 (calculation by the charge balance), total 97.69/100.52. The empirical formula is Сu4.97(VO4)2.00(OH)4.08. The IR spectra of turanite and tangeite are given. The mineral genesis is hydrothermal. The turanite study results along with the earlier determined crystal structure confirm its status as the original mineral species. At the same time, a revision of information about findings of turanite in Nevada, USA, is necessary. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngFardoost F., Mozgova N.N., Borodaev Y.S., Organova N.I., Levitskaya L.A. Easily Oxidizable Chalcopyrite from Black Smokers of the Rainbow Hydrothermal Field (MidAtlantic Ridge, 36°14'N), p. 44 - 50

Anomalous chalcopyrite from newly discovered sulphide tubes of deep sea hydrothermal vents known as black smokers in the Rainbow field has been studied by a series of methods (X-ray spectral microprobe analysis, mineragraphy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray microdiffraction method). In contrast to common chalcopyrite, the mineral quickly tarnishes in polished sections (highcopper sulphides of chalcocite-digenite series were detected in the oxidized film). The newly polished surface is isotropic in reflected light; the reflectance spectra belongs to chalcopyrite type, but R coefficients are much lower than standard ones (by 10-15%). The interval of values of microindentation VHN significantly exceeds those in common chalcopyrite (114-235 to 181-203 kgs/mm2 ). These characteristics indicate that the mineral is similar to two easily oxidizable cubic sulphides of the chalcopyrite group, talnakhite and putoranite. In the chemical composition, more copper than iron was noted in the limits expressed by the empirical formula Cu1-x(Fe,Co,Ni)1+xS2, where x changes from 0 to 0.09 at a constant ratio Me/S=1. The mineral is identified as standard chalcopyrite by Xray powder diffraction. There are two different reflection parts. The first ones are sharp and correspond to cubic cell with a=5.25 ‘Å. The second ones are wide that means disorder in chalcopyrite structure. Thus, X-ray diffraction data also confirms the similarity of easily oxidizable chalcopyrite totalnakhite and putoranite. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngGritsenko Y.D., Spiridonov E.M. Minerals of the Nickeline-Breithauptite Series from Metamorphogenic-hydrothermal Veins of the Norilsk Ore Field, p. 51 - 64

The antimonide-arsenide mineralization of the Norilsk ore field, which was considered by previous researchers as a derivative of the Р21 trap formation, is connected with the posttrap regional metamorphism in conditions of zeolite facies with age 164-122 MA. The antimonidearsenide mineralization is younger than a trap formation for more than 80 MA. Arsenides and antimonides of Ni (Co, Fe) occur among the metamorphosed Ni-Cu sulphide ores and in the nearest periphery of their deposit, mainly in the calcite and anhydritecalcite veins. Parameters of vein formation are as follows: Р=0.9-0.1 kbar, Т=216-127°С, solutions Na-Cl-Mg-Cl2 of low salinity (0.2-1.4% equiv. NaCl). History of formation of metamorphogenichydrothermal aggregations is complicated. Three cycles of the antimonide-arsenide mineralization are revealed. The first cycle includes ten mineral complexes with significantly arsenide composition; presence of nickeline with high content of Co, diarsenides, and triarsenides of NiCo is characteristic. The second cycle includes two mineral complexes with significantly antimonide composition; presence of silver minerals is characteristic. The third cycle is represented by the sulphoarsenide-sulphoantimonide mineral complex. The minerals of the nickeline-breithauptite continuous series form a considerable part of the antimonide-arsenide mineralization. The endmembers of the series, nickeline and breithauptite, are the most widespread; antimony nickeline is quite wide distributed. The Norilsk nickeline contains up to 12 wt % of Co, up to 3 wt % of Fe and S. Breithauptite is poor by Co, Fe, S, Se. In concentrates of nickeline, Pd, Pt, and Au were not detected. The zones of geometrical selection are present in the aggregates of arsenides and antimonides; that is an evident of crystallization of arsenides and antimonides from the normal solutions in open space. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngChernikov A.A., Dubinchuk V.T., Chistyakova N.I., Naumova I.S., Zaitsev V.S. New Data on Vanadium Hematite Associated with Micro and Nanocrystals of Noble Metals, Copper, Zinc, and Iron Minerals, p. 65 - 71

The dispersed hematite of bed zone of oxidation, isometric aggregations and veinlets of lamellar hematite from ore and the circumore space of a fissure deep-seated zone of oxidation contain more than 1% (to 10.96%) of vanadium. It is detected for the first time that vanadium hematite has the characteristic unit cell parameters: arh=5.44 Å, α=54°73'; ahex=5.03 Å, c=13.84 Å, space group R-3c). Vanadium hematite often contains carbonaceous aggregations, on which or near which are powdery aggregates of gold-bearing copper, auricupride, native gold, froodite, isoferroplatinum, intermetal compound CuZn, crystallochemical group of Fe, and a new native phase of the Cu3Pd type, the palladium analogue of auricupride. Size of nanocrystals of these powdery aggregates varies from 1-5 nm to 300-500 nm. The X-ray characteristic spectra of the Cu3Pd phase show the visible fluctuations of a ratio of palladium to copper in different particles of this phase, whereas the unit cell parameters of these particles are practically identical, a0=3.68±0.03 Å. The ircalculated formulae can be represented as follows: Cu3.3Pd0.6, Cu3.3Pd0.7, Cu3Pd1.18. A space group of the new phase, Pm3m, is also evidence that it is an analogue of auricupride. In hematized dolomite, a grain of carbonate mineral with diffusive reflections of the AuO(OH) phase, a0=4.18+0.03 Å, with sizes of nanocrystals 100-150 nm, was found. Presence of carbonaceous matter, on which nanocrystals of noble metals and other intermetal compounds grow, is an evidence that analytical data on content of the noble metals in ores and in the zone of hematization of ores can be understated in connection with their evaporation together with carbon during analysis. Therefore, the previous forecasts (Chernikov, 1997, 2001; Chernikov et al., 2000) about large reserves of the noble metals in the region of Onezhskaya depression have one more indirect confirmation. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngGroznova E.O., Dobrovol'skaya M.G., Kovalenker V.A., Tsepin A.I., Razin M.V. Bismuth Mineralization of Pb-Zn Ores at the Djimidon Deposit (North Osetia), p. 72 - 79

The Djimidon deposit is a new object in the Sadon ore district (Northern Osetia – Alania). Bismuth mineralization represented by a wide spectrum of Pb-Bi-Ag-S-bearing minerals has been found in the deposit and studied in detail. Its relationships with other mineral assemblages are shown in general sequence of consecution of ore deposition. The spatial regularities in distribution of bismuth mineralization in ores of the deposits are revealed. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngChukanov N.V., Ermolaeva V.N., Pekov I.V., Sokolov S.V., Nekrasov A.N., Sokolova M.N. Raremetal Mineralization Connected with Bituminous Matters in Late Assemblages of Pegmatites of the Khibiny and Lovozero Massifs, p. 80 - 95

The mineral composition and structure of microheterogeneous aggregates from the lowtemperature assemblages, containing solid bituminous matters (SBM), from the Khibiny and Lovozero massifs have been studied. It is shown that thin intergrowths of SBM with the rare elements minerals are the typomorphic formations of hydrothermal zones of agpaitic pegmatites of these massifs. 4 types of such intergrowths are distinguished, which are characterized by different mineralogical composition, high content of rare elements, and extremely high degree of separation of Ce, La, Nd, Y, Sr, Th, U, Ti, Nb, and Ba between different phases, right up to the formation of proper minerals of these elements. Not only new mineral species for Khibiny and Lovozero but also a whole number of phases that do not have analogues among known minerals were found. The possible mechanisms of formation of microheterogeneous aggregates containing SBM and a role of complexes with organic compounds in the transportation of rare elements at low temperatures are discussed. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngFilimonov S.V., Spiridonov E.M. Fahlores from the Kvartsitovye Gorki Hypabyssal Goldantimonite Deposit (North of Central Kazakhstan), p. 96 - 104

The new data on mineral assemblages, evolution, macro and microelement composition of fahlores of the Kvartsitovye Gorki plutonogene hydrothermal gold deposit, the less deep one in the North Kazakhstan gold-ore province, is given. Studied fahlores are stoichiometric by chemical composition, their crystals are often zoned; the smooth change of chemical composition form zone to zone is characteristic. Fahlores are poor by Bi, Te, Se, Tl, Cd, Sn; contents of Au, Pb, Ni, Co, Ge, and In in them are below detection limits of analysis. Fahlores of the productive assemblage are the most diverse. The earlier fahlores are enriched by mercury, especially in the less deep ore body IV (to 7 wt %). In fahlores of late generations of productive assemblage the contents of mercury is low in tens times. Evolution of fahlores of the productive assemblage in the industrial ore bodies I and IV is different: in the ore body IV, from early to late generations the contents of silver and antimony increase; in deeppenetrating ore body I, from early to late generations the relative content of antimony decreases and the silver contents increase. Just among the late generation of fahlores, in ore body I, argentotennantite occurs. читать далее...



Crystal Chemestry, Minerals as Prototypes of New Materials, Physical and Chemical Properties of Minerals

Pdf icon.pngNovgorodova M.I. Metacolloidal Gold, p. 106 - 114

The processes of aggregation and crystallization of natural colloidal gold, formed by mechanic way during grinding of gold particles in contemporary placers and in process of the hydrothermal solgel synthesis, are studied. It is shown that, in the first case, the friable heterodispersed globular sediment transformed in the dendritelike intergrowths and films with pores of hexagonal outlines was an initial form of coagulate. In the second case, that was the compact clots and films transformed during the process of syneresis and coalescence in the flat gold particles with a mosaicblock structure. The new aggregative type of coreshell structures of gold with blocks enriched by gold and interblock space enriched by silver was found. The epitaxial correlations between gold and quartz by a law (10I 1)SiO2II (001)Au and [12I0]SiO2II [100]Au was ascertained for the gold nanoparticles. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngSokolova M.N., Smol'yaninova N.N., Golovanova T.I., Chukanov N.V., Dmitrieva M.T. Delhayelite Crystals from Ristschorrites of the Rasvumchorr Plateau (Khibiny Massif), p. 115 - 118

The small (to 0.2х0.3х2 mm) wellshaped delhayelite crystals, sometimes doubleterminated, were found in the Khibiny massif in the macrocrystalline fenaksite aggregations in ristschorrites of the Rasvumchorr plateau. The crystals are prismatic, elongated on c axis, in different degree flattened on b axis; 10 simple forms are determined (measured for the first time). Parameters of the rhombic unit cell are as follows: а=6.52(1); b=24.83(6); c=7.07(1) Å; V=1144.95 Å3. The studied delhayelite is characterized by the highest content of the alkaline elements known for delhayelites; the content of H2O is low (by the IR spectroscopy data and chemical analyses), especially in the grey, darkest crystals, representing unaltered delhayelite. The X-ray powder pattern (the most intensive lines are as follows (d, A (I)): 3.10 (10), 3.03 (9), 2.87 (9), 1.910 (10), 1.630(10)) and the IR spectrum are given. читать далее...



Mineralogical Museums and Collections

Pdf icon.pngGeneralov M.E., Pautov L.A. Platinum of the Ugolnyi Stream (Norilsk) from the Fersman Mineralogical Museum Collection, p. 120 - 124

Three specimens from the Mineralogical Museum, catalogued as «platinum» from placer of the Ugolnyi stream (Norilsk), appeared to be complicated mixture of zoned minerals. By chemical composition the following mineral phases were found: tetraferroplatinum, ferronickelplatinum, isoferroplatinum, minerals of the atokite-zvyagintsevite series, stannopalladinite. It is supposed that formation of particular pseudomorphs of fine-grained aggregates, in which minerals of Pd-Sn-Pb-Cu system and isoferroplatinum prevail, after monocrystals of tetraferroplatinum is connected with local combination of different stages of formation of precious metal mineralization. читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngNenasheva S.N. Minerals Named in Honour of the Collaborators of the A.E. Fersman Mineralogical Museum, p. 125 - 141

Almost three hundred years history of existence and development of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum is closely connected with names of widely-known scientists who made an important contribution to development of mineralogy. Names of 28 outstanding mineralogists, collaborators of the Museum, became a part of the history of mineralogy forever. 23 mineral species, 9 mineral varieties, and stony-iron meteorites, pallasites, were named in their honour. In the article the scientific interests and attainments of collaborators of the Museum, whose names were conferred to minerals, are briefly described; also brief characteristic of these mineral species and varieties is given. 2 читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngChistyakova M.B. What are Exhibits Silent About, p. 142 - 149

New information about some items of the Collection of decorative and precious stones of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS is presented in the article. читать далее...



Mineralogical Notes

Pdf icon.pngSemenov E.I. Mineral Types of Ore of Europe, p. 151 - 153

Books on minerals and deposits of various geological provinces (the Urals) and countries (Germany, RSA, USA) are numerous, but such books on whole continents are rare. Series of monographs «Mineral deposits of Europe» (Mir, 1982, etc.) do not include Eastern part of Europe, especially Russia. This article represents brief tables with the main mineral types of ores of the territory from Portugal to the Urals. East Europe, and first of all Russia, has besides oil and gas the great number of other types of valuable ores, unknown in West Europe. Types of ores are determined according to the mineral concentrate: pyrochlore, columbite, loparite, which have different genesis (carbonatite, granite, nephelinesyenite), but not according to the countries, metals (for example, niobium, as it is accepted in the series «Mineral deposits of Europe»). читать далее...



Pdf icon.pngDymkov Y. M. Wonderful Drawings of Minerals by Victor Slyotov and Vladimir Makarenko, p. 154 - 157



Discussion

Pdf icon.pngBorutzky B.Ye. Essays on Fundamental and Genetic Mineralogy: 1. What is the Mineral and Mineral Species?, p. 159 - 165

At present, the existing nomenclature and systematisation of minerals is based on chemical principles, according to the statement that mineral is a chemical compound, though natural, but only one from million ones known to science. However, mineralogy is a geological, naturalhistoric science, and mineral is not only chemical compound but also a natural geological body, the main form of inanimate matter in nature, a stable phase of mineralforming processes, which has its own geological history, the object of geology. Consequently, the nomenclature of minerals, their systematisation and classification must be natural, i.e. be based not only on formal descriptive laws of chemistry but also should reflect the real correlation of chemical composition and crystal structure of minerals with concrete geological conditions of their formation, as well as their evolution in geological processes. By analogy with other natural science, biology, it is shown that minerals as well as living organisms, can be studied at different levels of organization of matter, which are characterized by proper elementary discrete systems and phenomena. Special level is one of them, and system concept of mineral species is a genetic concept.
There is a conclusion that recommended formal merely chemical (or crystallochemical) criteria of the IMA CNMMN do not correspond to natural principles of classification of mineral species, and describe objects of mineral science from the one side, only at the level of inner structure of compounds, without taking into account the essence of mineral as a stable phase of geological processes, with natural variations of its chemical composition, structure and properties within the field of its stability. читать далее...



Books view

Pdf icon.png BOOKS REVIEW, p. 167 - 168