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Journal/NDM45 2010 eng
New data on Minerals. Volume 45. 2010. 168 pages, 99 images, drawings, schemes.
Editor: Prof. Margarita I. Novgorodova.
Publication of the Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences, Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Editorial Board
- 3 Publishing group
- 4 Сontent
This volume contains papers on the newly discovered mineral species – aleksandrovite, the Sn-analogue of
baratovite, and åskagenite-(Nd), a new mineral of epidote supergroup. Discoveries of the rare minerals –
irarsite (from ores of the Shanuch deposit in Kamchatka), orickite, jaipurite, westerveldite, edgarite, tungstenite
and other chalcogenides (from the Khibiny massif in Kola peninsula) are described. New data on
accessory minerals from the Semeninskaya pit in the Aduy pegmatite field in the Ural Mts., on arsenosulvanite
and other sulphides from the Lebedinoe deposit in the Aldan Mts., on the composition and features
of native gold from an ore occurrence in South-Eastern Kamchatka, are given. Zoned crystals of monazite(Ce)
from granite pegmatites of the Ilmeny Mts. are studied, including radiology dating. Problems of mineralogy and geochemistry of tetravalent uranium, uranium ores and sulfide-oxide associations in modern
submarine pyrites, are covered.
In the chapter “Mineral museums and collections” there is a paper on the exhibition in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS dedicated to the 125th anniversary of Alexander N. Labuntsov – the discoverer of apatite deposits in the Khibiny Mts.
The next chapter – “Personalities” – for the first time brings forward letters found in the RAS archives from Alexander N. Labuntsov to academician Vladimir I. Vernadsky. The “Mineralogical notes” chapter includes description of rare intergrowth twins of magnetite from the Kurzhunkul deposit, Kazakhstan, and discussion of previous mistakes in the calculation of the chemical composition of some minerals.
The “Discussions” is represented by the paper on the problems of the definition of a valid mineral species and metastable mineralization.
The journal is of interest to mineralogists, geochemists, geologists and also researchers of Natural History museums, collectors and amateurs.
- Editor in Chief Margarita I. Novgorodova, Doctor in Science, Professor
- Executive Editor Elena A. Borisova, Ph.D.
- Eugeny I. Semenov, Doctor in Science,
- Svetlana N. Nenasheva, Ph.D.,
- Elena N. Matvienko, Ph.D.,
- Marianna B. Chistyakova, Ph.D.,
- Mikhail E. Generalov, Ph.D.
- Photo Michael B. Leybov
- Leader of Publishing group Michael B. Leybov
- Managing Editor Ludmila A. Cheshko
- Art Director Nikolay O. Parlashkevich
- Editor Andrey L. Cheshko
- Design and Layout Ivan A. Glazov
- Translators Maria S. Alferova, Il'ya A. Anisimov, Ivan A. Baksheev, Mark Fed’kun, Valerii V. Gerasimovskii, Mikhail Povarennykh
- Editors (English Style) Patricia Gray, Frank C. Hawthorne, Peter Modreski
Authorized for printing by Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences, Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS
Text, photo, drawings and schemes, Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences,
Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS, 2010
Design BRITAN Ltd, 2010
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New Minerals and Their Varieties, New Finds of Rare Minerals, Mineral Paragenesis
Aleksandrovite, KLi3Ca7Sn2[Si6O18]2F2 is a new mineral, the tin analogue of baratovite. It was discovered in a moraine boulder of microcline-calcite rock, along with quartz, albite, aegirine-hedenbergite pyroxene, in the Darai-Pioz glacier (Tajikistan). The mineral association is represented by baratovite, fluorite, miserite, Sn-bearing titanite, bazirite, pabstite, Sn-bearing sogdianite, sugilite, turkestanite, fluorapatite (apatite(CaF)). The new mineral occurs in two types: a) minute (up to 50–70 μm) lamellar grains with no zoning visible under BSE, and b) crystals (up to 0.8 mm) and aggregates of zoned and sectorial grains with separate zones of aleksandrovite, and baratovite or katayamalite. The mineral is colourless, transparent, with vitreous lustre and pearl lustre on cleaved surface. Streak colour is white. Cleavage is perfect along (001). Density (measured) = 3.05(2) g/cm3, density (calculated) = 3.07(2) g/cm3. Microhardness is 300 kg/mm2. Mohs hardness is 4–4.5. It fluoresces light-blue under short wave UV (254 nm). The mineral is biaxial, optically negative: np = 1.629(2), nm = 1.635(4), ng = 1.638(2) (589 nm); 2V (calculated) = –70.3°. Dispersion is strong, r > v. Elongation is positive, angle of extinction varies from 0° to 22°. Aleksandrovite is monoclinic, C2/c, a = 17.01(2), b = 9.751(6), c = 21.00(2) Å, b = 112.45(8)° , V = 3219(7) Å3 , Z = 4. The strongest X-Ray lines are as follows: (d in Å (I) (hkl)): 4.86(21)(31–1); 3.712(33)(312); 3.234(100)(006); 3.206(34)(223); 3.039(28)(025); 2.894(42)(314); 2.425(42)(008); 1.950(25)(426). Chemical analysis (EMPA, an average out of 17 analyses; Li2O – ICP OES, H2O – calculated; wt.%): SiO2 – 48.01, Al2O3 – 0.07, TiO2 – 2.86, SnO2 – 12.84, ZrO2 – 1.27, Nb2O5 – 0.11, Fe2O3 – 0.27, Ce2O3 – 0.04, MgO – 0.05, CaO – 25.52, SrO – 0.39, Na2O – 0.20, K2O – 2.91, Li2O – 3.01, F – 1.71, H2O – 0.39, (-O=F2) = 0.72, total 99.12. Empiric formula of aleksandrovite - (K0.93Na0.10)1.03Li3.02(Ca6.82Sr0.06Mn0.04Mg0.02)6.94(Sn1.28Ti0.54 Zr0.15Fe0.05Nb0.01)2.03(Si11.98Al0.02)12O36.00[F1.35(OH)0.65]2.00. IR spectrum of aleksandrovite is similar to that of baratovite, the strongest absorption strips are: 1083, 1024, 974, 950, 673, 607, 568, 520, 470, 440 cm-1. Compatibility index is 1 – (Kp/Kc) = –0.005. The mineral is named to honour of the well-known Russian geochemist, geologist and mineralogist Stanislav Mikhailovich Aleksandrov (born in 1932) for his great contribution in geology, geochemistry and mineralogy of tin. The type specimen is stored in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS in Moscow (registration number 3825/1). читать далее...
A new epidote-supergroup mineral åskagenite-(Nd) was discovered in specimens from a granite pegmatite outcropped at the Åskagen deposit near the town of Filipstad, Värmland, Sweden, in association with potassic feldspar, quartz, bastnäsite, thorite, the Nd-dominant analogue of allanite-(Ce), brookite, gadolinite-(Y) and allophаne. The new mineral forms coarse prismatic and flattened crystals up to 1×4 cm in size. Åskagenite-(Nd) is black, with resinous lustre and brown streak, translucent in thin fragments; brittle, Mohs’ hardness 6, fracture conchoidal. Dmeas = 3.737(5) g/cm3 (for a metamict sample); Dcalc = 4.375 g/cm3 (for a sample heated at 600°C during 1 h in nitrogen). Åskagenite-(Nd) is optically isotropic, n = 1.712(2). IR spectrum is given. Chemical composition (electron microprobe, water determined by Alimarin method, Fe2+:Fe3+ by Mössbauer data, valency of Mn by XANES spectroscopic data, wt.%): CaO 0.27, Y2O3 2.27, La2O3 0.44, Ce2O3 7.99, Pr2O3 1.76, Nd2O3 11.21, Sm2O3 3.01, Yb2O3 0.21, ThO2 0.72, MnO 7.98, FeO 7.75, Fe2O3 9.16, Al2O3 15.85, SiO2 29.51, H2O 0.55, total; 98.75. Crystalchemical formula: (Mn2+0.69Fe2+0.26Ca0.03)∑0.98(Nd0.41Ce0.30Y0.12Sm0.10Pr0.07La0.02Yb0.01Th0.02)∑1.05(Al0.90Fe3+0.10)∑1.00Al1.00(Fe3+0.60Fe2+0.40)∑1.00Si2.99O11O[O0.63(OH)0.37]∑1.00. Strong lines of X-ray powder-diffraction pattern of a heated sample d, Å (I; hkl) are: 3.50(46; -211), 3.22(50; -212, 201), 2.897 (100; -301), 2.850(73; 020), 2.687(73; 120), 2.121(48; -403), 1.630(59; 124). Unit-cell parameters are: a = 8.78(1) Å, b = 5.710(6) Å, c = 10.02(1) Å, b = 114.6(2)°; V = 456.7(8) Å3, Z = 2; space group P21/m. Type material is deposited in the collections of the Technische Universität, Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany; inventory numbers are 82194 and 82218. читать далее...
In sulfide copper-nickel ores of the Shanuch deposit (Kamchatka) new for this deposit mineral – irarsite was found. The deposit is associated spatially and geneticly with stocks and dikes of the Dukukskiy basite-hyperbasite complex of Eocene age. Three mineral associations are distinguished in its ores: pentlandite-pyrrhotite, magnetite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite and pyrite-marcasite one. It is established, that irarsite forms microinclusions in sulfoarsenides, more seldom in pentlandite of magnetite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite association of massive sulfide ores. In irarsite composition there are constantly admixtures of iron, nickel and cobalt, sometimes of rhodium and platinum. читать далее...
Composition and forms of separations of two specimens of “euxenite” from the collections of A.E. Fersman (from the funds of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, RAS) found to be samarskite-(Y) as well as new findings of samarskite-(Y), ferro- and manganocolumbite, monazite-(Се), gahnite and spessartine from quartz-albite aggregates of chamber granitic pegmatite from the Semeninskaya pit have been investigated. Samarskite grains are partly replaced by fersmite, and in zones of alteration contain silica (probably opal). читать далее...
Apoxenolithic alumina-rich fenites in the Khibiny alkaline massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia) contain various and specific chalcogenide (mostly sulphide) mineralization. Chalcogenides occur mostly in essentially nephelinefeldspar rocks with variable quantities of other minerals (biotite, rutile, hercynite, corundum, ilmenite, pyrophanite, graphite, sillimanite, sekaninaite, native iron etc.). The most abundant are members of the pyrrhotite-troilite series, in some areas molybdenite is predominant. The other chalcogenides are subordinate however among them there occur both rather rare minerals (jaipurite CoS and westerveldite FeAs – the first finds in Russia, tungstenite WS2 – the first find in Khibiny) and geochemically unique objects – edgarite FeNb3S6 and Ti-bearing iron sulphides. Pyrite, marcasite, alabandite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, lö llingite, galena, cubanite, pentlandite also occur. The irregular distribution of sulphides in fenites (from 0.0 up to almost 70%) is due to the primary sulphur content in the protolith (Precambrian alumina-rich schists) which is considered to be its source. Activity of S2- in some areas of the fenites reaches the record values for the Earth objects, which results in unique mineral associations with sulphides containing Mn, W, V, and even Nb, Ti, Cr. The distribution analysis of metals (species-defining and “macro-impurities”: from 0.n to n wt.%) among oxygen compounds and sulphides resulted in an empiric seguence of chalcophility decrease, i.e. affinity to S2- (and, correspondingly, increase of lithophylity) of metals: Cu,Pb,Mo → Zn → Fe → Mn,W,V → Nb,Cr → Ti → Mg,Ca → Al,Be,REE. The formation of the sulphides in alumina-rich fenites in general took place at high temperatures (> 500–600°C) and high reducing potential. читать далее...
The results of examination of arsenosulvanite from the Lebedinoe deposit are discussed. The comparison with available published data of arsenosulvanite and colusite indicated that arsenosulvanite studied here is significantly different from colusite in both content of species-forming minerals and set of admixtures. Based on the electron microprobe data, X-ray diffraction study, and taking into account data by FrankKame netskaya (2002) that arsenosulvanite and colu site are two structural modifications of compound V2Cu24As6S32, we conclude arsenosulvanite as independent and incorrectly discredited mineral species (Burke, 2006). читать далее...
The results of examination of minerals from the Lebedinoe deposit are discussed. In addition to previously described mineral species, digenite, anilite, spionkopite, yarrowite, pyrrohotite-5c, and minerals of the fahlore family (Zn-bearing tetrahedrite – sandbergerite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, and tennantite) were identified in the ore of the deposit. Anisotropic arsenosulvanite with well-formed polysynthetic twins has been found. читать далее...
Native gold from hydrothermal ore veins from the South-Eastern Kamchatka region is described. Silver content in the mineral measured by microprobe varies from 14.4 up to 32 wt.%. There are also Bi, Te and Se in the mineral composition. The heterogeneous structure of the gold grains observed gives their low microhardness. The conclusion on the correlation between physical properties, composition and conditions of mineral formation is made. читать далее...
Crystals of monazite-(Ce) from granitic amazonite pegmatite of the Blyumovskaya mine (N 50) and amazoniteless granitic pegmatite of the mine N 244 from the Ilmeny mountains of the Southern Urals are investigated. Heterovalent isomorphism according to the scheme [(Th4+,U4+,Pb2+)1-xCa2+x ] + Si4+ ↔ (REE3+,Y3+) + P5+ is revealed in composition of the investigated monazites. Monazite-(Ce) from the granitic amazonite pegmatite of the Blyumovskaya mine with a semi-specious stones mineralization is enriched in Th and Pb and it is characterized by sharp sectoriality of composition with higher concentrations of ThO2 (32–33 wt.%), UO2 and PbO in pyramids of growth <110> and <322>, and with the lowest concentrations of these components in <101> pyramids. According to chemical dating, age of monazite from the Blyumovskaya mine accounts for 240 ± 11–12 million years. Monazite-(Ce) from granitic amazoniteless pegmatite of the mine N 244 is zonal with smaller concentrations of Th, U and Pb in the central zones of crystal. According to the ratio La2O3-Nd2O3 in monazite of the mine N 244, this vein is attributed to the late granitic pegmatites (formed before amazonite ones). Radiological age of the monazite from this vein is a little bit more ancient than from the Blyumovskaya (247 ± 16 million years) that corresponds with the data on sequence of formation of different pegmatites in the Ilmeny mountains. читать далее...
On the basis of the author experimental data and analysis of literature, modern state of mineralogy of tetravalent uranium is considered. New and little known results are obtained due to utilization of local methods of analytical electron microscopy (AEM). More thorough mineralogical investigations from optical level to electronic level not only widened range of U4+ minerals, showing possibility of existence of U4+-phospho-silicates, but also allowed us to say more definitely about structural relation of Ca and U4+ in these minerals. читать далее...
Mozgova N.N., Borodaev Yu.S., Stepanova Т.V., Cherkashev G.А., Uspenskaya Т.Yu. Sulfide-oxide mineral assemblages as indicator of sulfur and oxygen regime in modern submarine massive sulfide deposits, p. 91 - 100
During ore-forming hydrothermal processes at the oceanic bottom, the behavior of sulfur and oxygen varies like at the continents. These variations are illustrated by the sulfide-oxide mineral assemblages from the modern submarine massive sulfide deposits in hydrothermal ore areas of the Eastern Pacific Rise (occurrence 6° N and massive sulfide deposits in the range of 18°5’ to 21°8’ S) and two hydrothermal fields of Mid Atlantic Ridge (active section Irina-2 14°5’ N in Logachev field and Rainbow field 36°14’ N). Probable causes of these variations are discussed. читать далее...
Currently, more than 150 uranium and uranium-bearing minerals are known. Most of them pertain to the uranyl group formed under oxidative conditions reflecting physicochemical parameters in the mineral compositions or mineral assemblages. The uranyl minerals compose the following economic ores: (1) uranophane-beta – zeolites (Berezovyi and Gornyi deposits, Transbaikalia), (2) the uranyl minerals associated with zeolites (Severnyi deposit, NE Russia, granite in Bulgaria), (3) parsonsite (La Chaux deposit, France), and (4) uranyl phosphates in argillic granite (Durulgui deposit, Transbaikalia). In addition, large uranium deposits as carnotite calcretes and calcretes with the other uranyl minerals are known from Australia and Namibia, respectively. Cut off ore (up to 0.01% U) and blocks with low uranium grade (up to 0.005% and lower) are economic at the deposits with the uranyl minerals in the case of geotechnological mining or heap-leaching processing, for example schrö ckingerite deposits in Mongolia and Kazakhstan. Such deposits can be large and superlarge. In the fresh economic ore, uranium (IV) minerals are oxides (nasturan, uraninite, sooty pitchblende), titanates (brannerite and its transition varieties), silicates (coffinite and silicates of variable composition), and less frequent uranium (IV) phosphates and molybdates. Uranium-bearing minerals are apatite, Ti, Zr, and Th oxides and silicates, and zeolites. The ore deposition is significantly affected by the near-surface and deep-seated supergene alteration. The additional exploration and estimation criteria for uranium deposits are proposed. These criteria allow discovery of uranium deposits in: (1) north of the Strel’tsovsk structure, South-East Transbaikalia, (2) Akitkan district and Chara-Olekma block, northern Baikal Region, and (3) Western Siberian Plate. читать далее...
Crystal Chemistry, Minerals as Prototypes of New Materials, Physical and Chemical Properties of Minerals
The hydrous sulfide of Fe and Cu, orickite, was found for the second time in the world at the Khibiny alkaline massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It was discovered at the Koashva mountain, in cavities of hydrothermally altered peralkaline pegmatite with natrolite, aegirine, astrophyllite, lorenzenite, fluorapatite, fluorite, burbankite, sphalerite, chlorbartonite, amicite, vishnevite, elpasolite and other minerals. Orickite forms hexagonal laminar crystals (up to 1.5 mm) of bronze-yellow color with metallic luster. Chemical composition of the mineral (wt.%, electron microprobe data) is: Na 0.0–0.2, K 0.1–0.2, Ca 0.05–0.2, Tl 0.0–0.3, Fe 27.7–31.7, Cu 29.9–33.8, Zn 0.2–0.9, S 28.8–34.0, O 5.2–8.6. The average empirical formula of the best studied sample is: Ca0.01Cu1.01Fe1.03Zn0.01S1.95·0.83H2O. The simplified formula of orickite is: CuFeS2(H2O)1-x, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8. According to X-ray powder diffraction patterns, for orickite is suggested, as the most probable, hexagonal symmetry, space group P63mс and structure model corresponding to wurtzite with disordered distribution of H2O molecules that form layers (or their “fragments”), statistically substituting pairs of layers [(Fe,Cu)-S]. The Khibiny orickite represents intergrowth of two polytypic mo - difications, one of which (predominant) corresponds to wurtzite-2H (a = 3.71(4), c = 6.16(3) Å – according to single-crystal data; a = 3.700(2), c = 6.137(6) Å – according to X-ray powder data), and the second one – to wurtzite-4H (according to X-ray powder data: a = 3.700(2), c = 12.267(12) Å). читать далее...
Mineralogical Museums and Collections
In 2009, Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences celebrated the 125th anniversary of Alexander Nikolaevich Labuntsov, a remarkable mineralogist, the discoverer of the huge Khibiny apatite deposits. Being a great expert and collector of minerals, Labuntsov had worked in the Museum for about 35 years, organized field expeditions of wide geographic scope, and contributed to various museum collections with more than two thousand objects. The exhibit organized at the Museum by this date presents specimens collected by A.N. Labuntsov, his working materials, personal items, photographs, published works, and documents (including those found in the Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences). читать далее...
Borisova E.A., Pavlova T.M., Labuntsova M.A. To A.N. Labuntsov’s 125th anniversary: A.N. Labuntsov’s letters to academician V.I. Vernadsky (from the Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences), p. 129 - 147
To the 125th anniversary of A.N. Labuntsov, the discoverer of the Khibiny apatite deposits, his letters to the academician V.I. Vernadsky of years 1935–1939 as well as referred documents are published for the first time, both having been found in the Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS Archive). читать далее...
Rare intergrowth twin crystals of magnetite from Kurzhunkul deposit were described along with composition of magnetite and chlorite in zoned botryoidal aggregate. читать далее...
Some cases of mistakes in determination of minerals content are described. читать далее...
The problems of the valid mineral species definition are discussed: in case of the metastable and convergence mi - neralization. читать далее...