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Journal/NDM38 2003 eng
New Data on Minerals. Volume 38, 2003, 172 pages, 66 color photos.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Editorial Board
- 3 Publishing group
- 4 Сontent
Articles of the volume are devoted to mineralogy, including descriptions of new mineral species (telyushenkoite – a new
caesium mineral of the leifite group, neskevaaraite-Fe – a new mineral of the labuntsovite group) and new finds of minerals
(pabstite from the moraine of the Dara-i-Pioz glacier, Tadjikistan, germanocolusite from Kipushi, Katanga, minerals
of the hilairite group from Khibiny and Lovozero massifs). Results of study of mineral associations in gold-sulfidetellyride
ore of the Kairagach deposit, Uzbekistan are presented. Features of rare germanite structure are revealed. The
cavitation model is proposed for the formation of mineral microspherulas. Problems of isomorphism in the stannite
family minerals and additivity of optical properties in minerals of the humite series are considered. The section
Mineralogical Museums and Collections includes articles devoted to the description and history of Museum collections
(article of the Kolyvan grinding factory, P.A.Kochubey's collection, new acquisitions) and the geographical location of
mineral type localities is discussed in this section. The section Mineralogical Notes includes the article about photographing
minerals and Reminiscences of the veteran research worker of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Doctor
in Science M.D. Dorfman about meetings with known mineralogists and geochemists – N.A. Smoltaninov, P.P.
Pilipenko, Yu.A. Bilibin.
This journal is of interest for mineralogists, geochemists, geologists, staff of natural history museums, collectors, and rocks aficionados.
Editor in Chief: - M.I. Novgorodova - Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, Professor
Executive Editor: - E.A. Borisova - Ph.D. of Geology and Mineralogy
Members of Editorial Board:
M.D. Dorfman - Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy
S.N. Nenasheva - Ph.D. of Geology and Mineralogy
E.N. Matvienko - Ph.D. of Geology and Mineralogy
M.B. Chistyakova - Ph.D. of Geology and Mineralogy
M.E. Generalov - Ph.D. of Geology and Mineralogy
N.A. Sokolova - Secretary
Photo - M.B. Leybov, M.R. Кalamkarov, B.Z. Kantor, N.A. Pekova
Leader of Publishing group - M.B. Leybov
Executive Editor - A.L. Cheshko
Art Director - N.O. Parlashkevich
Design (idea) – D. Ershov
Layout – S.B. Dvoskina
Translators – D. Belakovskii, Il'.Kubancev, M. Girfanov, B. Kantor, V.Zubarev
English Style - Patricia A. S. Gray
You can order the current issue or subscribe to the magazine at www.minbook.com or by email email@example.com
New Minerals and Their Varieeties: New Finds of Rare Minerals, Mineral Paragenesis
A new mineral, telyushenkoite, was discovered in the Dara-i-Pioz alkaline massif (Tajikistan). It occurs as white or colorless vitreous equant anhedral grains up to 2cm wide in coarsegrained boulders of reedmergnerite associated with microcline, polylithionite, shibkovite and pectolite. The mineral has distinct cleavage, Mohs hardness = 6, VHN100 = 714(696737) kg/mm2, Dmeas. = 2.73(1), Dcalc. = 2.73g/cm3. In transmitted light, telyushenkoite is colorless and transparent. It is uniaxial positive, ω = 1.526(2), ε = 1.531(2). Singlecrystal X-ray study indicates trigonal symmetry, space group P3m1, a = 14.3770(8), c = 4.8786(3) Å, V = 873.2(1)Å3 , Z = 1. The strongest lines in the powderdiffraction pattern are [d(I,hkl)]: 12.47(7,010), 6.226(35,020), 4.709(21,120), 4.149(50,030), 3.456(40,130), 3.387(75,121), 3.161(100,031), 2.456 (30,231). The chemical composition (electron microprobe, BeO by colorimetry) is SiO2 64.32, Al2O3 7.26, BeO 3.53, ZnO 1.71, Na2O 13.53, K2O 0.47, Cs2O 6.76, Rb2O 6.76, F 2.84, O = F 1.20, total 99.37 wt.%, corresponding to (Cs0.69Na0.31K0.14Rb0.02)1.16Na6.00 [Be2.04(Si15.46Al2.06Zn0.30)17.82O38.84F2.16]. Telyushenkoite, ideally CsNa6[Be2 (Si15Al3)18 O39F2], is the Cs-dominant analogue of leifite, ideally NaNa6[Be2(Si15Al3)18O39F2]. читать далее...
Nikita V. Chukanov, Viktor.V. Subbotin, Igor V. Pekov, Aleksandr E. Zadov, Anatoliy I. Tsepin, Kseniya A. Rozenberg, Ramiza K. Rastsvetaeva, Giovanni Ferraris. NeskevaaraiteFe, – Fe, NaK3Fe(Ti,Nb)4(Si4O12)2(O,OH)4.6H2O – a new labuntsovite group mineral, p. 9 - 14
Neskevaaraite-Fe, a new labuntsovitegroup mineral, was found in the Vuoriyarvi alkaline-ultramafic pluton, Northern Karelia, within a hydrothermally altered carbonatite body. The mineral occurs as rough brown translucent prismatic crystals up to 6 mm long. Associated minerals are dolomite, calcite, phlogopite, fluorapatite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, serpentine, and nenadkevichite. Another occurrence is a fieldsparecalcite vein located in the Kukisvumchorr Mt., Khibiny, Kola Peninsula, where the new mineral is closely associated with labuntsoviteFe. читать далее...
Pabstite was discovered in the moraine of the Dara-i-Pioz glacier (Garmsky district, Tadjikistan) in a leucocratic rock mainly composed of microcline, quartz, and albite. Subordinated minerals are aegirine, titanite, astrophyllite, bafertisite, galena, sphalerite, ilmenite, pyrochlore, fluorite, zircon, fluorapatite, and calcite. Pabstite forms grains and wellfaced crystals (0.10.5 mm), growing on quartz crystals in small cavities abundant in the rock. Its composition is close to the final member BaSnSi3O9 in the series pabstitebenitoite. Microprobe analysis has shown: SiO2 – 37.43; TiO2 – 0.19; ZrO2 – 0.16; SnO2 – 30.05; BaO – 32.41; total 100.24. The empirical formula is Ba1.02(Sn0.96Ti0.01Zr0.01)0.98Si3.01O9. Refraction parameters of pabstite are no = 1.668(2); ne = 1.657(2), which is much lower than cited figures for pabstite from the type locality. Strong dependence of pabstite optical properties on titanium contents is shown. The find of pabstite at DaraiPiozе is the first find of pabstite in alkaline rocks and, apparently, the second find of this mineral in the world. читать далее...
The hilairite group includes hilairite, calciohilairite, komkovite, sazykinaite-(Y) and pyatenkoite-(Y). Their unique structural type is based on a mixed framework of screwed chains (Si3O9) and isolated Moctahedra (M = Zr, Ti, Y+Ln); large cations (Na, Ca, Ba, and subordinated K, Sr) and water molecules settle down in extensive zeolitelike cages and channels. Some features of chemical composition and properties of hi - lairitegroup minerals are easily explained if to consider them as specific raremetal «zeolites». Hilairitegro up minerals occur in hydrothermalites of the KhibinyLovozero alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula. This paper gives a review of publications on the hilairite group, describes new finds in Khibiny and Lovozero massifs, gives 29 chemical analyses of these minerals, including 17 analyses made by the authors. The isomorphous series hilairite – calciohilairite was established in material from Lovozero, as well as BaK and Srcontaining varieties of calciohilairite. The first finds of hilairite and pyatenkoite(Y) in Khibiny are described. The comparative analysis of IR spectra of all group members is given for the first time. Crystal chemistry, properties and genesis of hilairitelike minerals are discussed in view of their zeolite-like structure. читать далее...
Germanite is a very rare mineral that commonly occurs as small segregations in association with bornite, renierite, fahlores, sphalerite, galena, and other sulfides and sulfosalts. Very fine structures of replacement of germanite for renierite are often observed. Such small segregations are difficult to study. Optical properties of germanite are slightly variable in different areas and in samples from different deposits. The chemical composition (concentrations of the principal elements) of germanite varies over a wide range. In addition, the mineral was revealed to contain a wide set of admixtures. Therefore, different researchers propose different formulas for germanite. Chemical and electron microprobe analyses of germanite, accessible in literature, were compiled by the author, and peculiarities of the chemical composition of germanite were studied. It has been revealed that 28 analyses from 37 ones are adequately recalculated to the formula with 66 atoms in the unit cell; 6 analyses, to the formula with 64 atoms; and 3 analyses, with 68 atoms. The Me/S ratio in the analyses varies from 32:32 to 34:32 and to 36:32; that is, this ratio in the real analyses is inconstant. This fact suggests that we deal either with solid solutions or with three different, but similar in the chemical composition and properties, minerals. The second assumption is more probable. It is concluded that there exist three mineral species close to germanite in the chemical composition. читать далее...
Bornite from the Kipushi ore deposit was studied in Sample 64332 from the collection of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum. It was revealed to contain small oval inclusions of germanocolusite associated with renierite, tennantite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. Germanocolusite from Kipushi contains slightly more Zn and V and less As, as compared to germanocolusite from the type locality. A new crystallochemical formula proposed for germanocolusite takes into account the isomorphism Zn2+ + Ge4+ → As5+ + Cu+, characteristic for complex sulfides of Ge. This is the first find of germanocolusite at the Kipushi deposit. читать далее...
The Kairagach ore deposit is situated on the northern slope of the Kurama Ridge (East Uzbekistan), 3.5 km
northeast of the wellknown Kochbulak goldtelluride ore deposit. According to specific mineralogical features
of the ores and hydrothermal alterations, it was assigned to the highsulfidation (or acidsulfate) type of
epithermal mineralization. However, in contrast to typical gold deposits of this type with a pronounced Au-Cu
specialization, the ores of the Kairagach deposit are characterized by the Au-Sn-Bi-Se-Te geochemical profile.
This paper briefly summarizes original and published data on the Kairagach deposit, including its geological
features and ore characteristics, sequence of the mineral formation, and the main mineral assemblages.
Occurrence conditions and chemical peculiarities of the essential minerals of the
gold-sulfide-selenide-telluride mineralization are considered. Data on the abundance and compositional variations
of native elements (gold, tellurium, and tin), fahlores, Bi and Sb sulfosalts, Cu and Fe sulfostannates, and
various selenides and tellurides are presented.
It is shown that the unique diversity of the ore mineralization is determined by the variety of state and occurrence forms (native, isomorphous, sulfide, selenide, and telluride) of their contained chemical elements. читать далее...
The cavitation model was considered to explain mineral microspherula formation conditions in ores of hydrothermal genesis. Microspherulas are treated as hardened and crystallized drops of melt. Thermodynamic calculations of thermal energy emitted during microseconds at gas bubble contraction in boiling up hydrothermal solution show that fusion of such refractory substances as quartz and gold is possible. читать далее...
Crystal Chemistry, Minerals as Prototypes of New Materials, Physical and Chemical Properties of Minerals
The crystals structures of stannite group minerals and mechanism of isomorphic substitution were studied
using a complex of analytical techniques. Ten members of the kuramitestannite series, Cu3-xFexSnS4 (0<x<1),
synthesized by ~0.1 formula units, pure stannite, and kesterite were chosen for this study. The methods used
included microprobe and profile analysis (Rietveld method), Mö ssbauer spectroscopy, scanning and transmitting
electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The intermediate members of the
kuramitestannite series are structurally similar homogeneous phases of tetragonal symmetry with regularly
changing unit cell parameters (c/a~2). According to the structural analysis, four compounds of the series
Cu3-xFexSnS4 with x= 0.3, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 have tetragonal structures, which differ from stannite by their lower
symmetry (I 4) and distribution of atoms among tetrahedral positions.
According to the Mö ssbauer, the compounds of this mineral group contain divalent and trivalent iron atoms. Below the limiting iron atom concentration Fe (x) ~ 0.5 data shows that all Fe atoms are trivalent and occupy the sulfur octahedra. At 0<x<0.5, the substitution of atoms and the change of the structural positions and atom valence is carried out according to the scheme: 2Cu2+(Td) → Cu1+(Td) + (Td) + Fe3+(Oh). The formula of the intermediate compounds can be expressed as Cu1+2Cu2+1-2xFe3+xCu1+xSn4+S4v The rend phase of this process is Cu1+2.5Fe3+0.5Sn4+S4. At the concentration (x>0.5), the mechanism of isomorphism is different: Cu1+(Td) + Fe3+(Oh) + (Tdv → 2Fe2+(Td), and the end phase of this process is Cu1+2Fe2+Sn4+S4.
Based on the results of the Mö ssbauer analysis, the structure of the intermediate phase Cu3-xFexSnS4 with x~0.6 was refined. It has been shown that Fe3+ atoms have octahedral coordination and occupy the positions that are free in the «normal» ordered sphalerite structure.
The Fe3+atoms (highspin state) in kesterite with low Fe content are distributed among octahedral positions, which are vacant in the structure of pure Cu2ZnSnS4. This result is in good agreement with the complex scheme of isomorphism in Cu3-xFexSnS4 series. читать далее...
Additive models of optic properties of the MgFhumite minerals are proposed based on two schemes of structural partition. The recent scheme of structure partition with both forsterite and sellaite layers stacking is discussed and a new one with both norbergite and forsterite layers stacking is suggested. The essence of models is that weighted components of partial dielectric permeability tensors, belonging to different kinds of structural blocks, give an individual pays to average tensor and so they determine refractive indices of mineral. The partial tensor component values were estimated by least squares procedure and the calculated refractive are very close to those. Since both structure partition schemes provide a good agreement with real optical properties for models constructed by them, they seem to be correct and, therefore, the humite group minerals are members of a polysomatic series. читать далее...
Mineralogical Museums and Collections
Brief history of decorative stone discovery and stonecutting development on Altai. Description of articles of Kolyvan grinding factory in the Museum's collection читать далее...
The article described the history of the unique mineral collection created by the Prince P.A. Kochubei in the nineteenth century. читать далее...
A silver ingot from the collection of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum has turned out to be a yamb, an ancient Chinese coin. Its description and information obtained from its marking stamps are presented. читать далее...
Between 1997 and 2001, 3414 new mineral specimens were introduced into the inventories of the five major collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum RAS. These specimens represent 980 different mineral species from 73 countries. Among these, 372 are new species for the Museum, including 83 that were discovered during this period. Museum staff members discovered sixteen of these. Three of the new species were discovered in previously cataloged museum pieces that were acquired as other minerals. Of the minerals obtained, 93 are either type specimens or fragments of type specimens. By the end of 2001 the number of valid mineral species in the Museum fund reach 2700. Of the newly acquired items, 1197 were donated by 230 persons and by 12 organizations; 610 specimens were collected by the Museum staff, 600 were exchanged, 334 bought, 521 registered from previously collected materials, and 152 were obtained in other ways. A review of the new acquisitions is presented by mineral species, geography, acquisition type and source. The review is accompanied by a list of new species for the Museum along with a want list. читать далее...
An inventory of mineral type localities at which more than three new mineral species were discovered (nearly 200 sites over the world) has been compiled. Their geographical locations have been refined (the coordinates are presented) using the multimedia Microsoft Encarta2001 World Atlas. Examples of the earliest (regarding the year of the publication) and last finds of new minerals are presented for each of the type localities. These data can be used for expansion of museum collections at the expense of additions of type specimens. читать далее...
Information on replenishment of Museum’s collections in 1909–1914 based on the study of archival sources. читать далее...
The paper portrays Academician A.E. Fersman as one of the founders and supporters of the Mineralogical Museum in Moscow; he guided the museum to form a new research center here. читать далее...
The geography of A.E.Fersman’s mineralogical collections, including samples surrendered to the systematic collection of the Mineralogical Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences is described. читать далее...
For art or technical photographing minerals in non-professional conditions, high quality of medium magnifications can be ensured by means of miniature single lens reflex (SLR) cameras of general use and ordinary photographic materials. To apply longfocus macro lenses and avoid diaphragm excessive closing is recommended. To reproduce morphological features of a mineral, flexible and multi-functional artificial lighting is necessary. For negatives, daylight film in combination with light-conversion filter is recommended. Adequate reproducing of mineral complicated color involves accurate matching of color temperatures and selection of light sources, preferably halogen lowpower cold-light lamps, corresponding the given combination of photographic material and colorconversion filter. читать далее...
The veteran research worker of the A.E. Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, described his meetings with N.A. Smolyaninov, P.P. Pilipenko, and Yu.A. Bilibin, prominent mineralogists and geologists. читать далее...